mwthod acting II * * method two * new pages *
Единственный царь и владыка сцены - талантливый артист. - К. Станиславский
ShowCases: 3 Sisters, Mikado, 12th Night, Hamlet, The Importance of Being Earnest, Dangerous Liaisons, Don Juan
Честно говоря, Станиславский был гений, и система его для гениев. Людям масштаба помельче казалось, что он Моцарт, который хочет стать Сальери. *
МХАТ умер раньше него лет на десять...
"Долго жил. Много видел. Был богат. Потом обеднел-Видел свет. Имел хорошую семью, детей. Жизнь раскидала всех по миру. Искал славы. Нашел. Видел почести, был молод. Состарился. Скоро надо умирать.
Теперь спросите меня: в чем счастье на земле?
В познавании. В искусстве и в работе, в постигновении его. Познавая искусство в себе, познаешь природу, жизнь мира, смысл жизни, познаешь душу-талант.
Выше этого счастья нет". 1933 * Preface by А. Смелянский. ( Работа актера над собой )
Во второй части книги "Работа актера над собой", в "Заключительных беседах", Станиславский напишет: "Мы родились с этой способностью к творчеству, с этой "системой" внутри себя. Творчество - наша естественная потребность и, казалось бы, иначе, как правильно, по "системе", мы не должны бы были уметь творить. Но, к удивлению, приходя на сцену, мы теряем то, что дано природой, и вместо творчества начинаем ломаться, притворяться, наигрывать и представлять".
* The first significant performance work drawing on Stanislavsky's ideas was carried Out by the Group Theater, formed in New York in 1931. [ Moderntimes ]
LEE STRASBERG - DEFINITION OF ACTING
Acting is generally agreed to be a matter of less mimicry, exhibitionism, or imitation than the ability to react to imaginary stimuli. Its essential elements remain the twin requisites enunciated in the 18th century by French actor Francois-Joseph Talma: "Unusual sensitivity and extraordinary intelligence." The intelligence he refers to comes not from book learning but from the ability to understand the workings of the human personality.
Constantin Stanislavski (overview)
"All of our acts, even the simplest, which are so familiar to us in everyday life, become strained when we appear behind the footlights before a public of a thousand people. That is why it is necessary to correct ourselves and learn again how to walk, sit, or lie down. It is essential to re-educate ourselves to look and see, on the stage, to listen and to hear."
To achieve this "reeducation", Stanislavski said, "the actor must first of all believe in everything that takes place onstage, and most all, he must believe what he himself is doing. And one can only believe in the truth." To give substance to his ideas, Stanislavski studied how people act in everyday life and how they communicated feelings and emotions; and then he found a way to accomplish the same things onstage. He developed a series of exercises and techniques for the performer which had the following broad aims:
technique & key concepts:
Relaxation When he observed the great actors and actresses of his day, Stanislavsky noticed how fluid and lifelike their movements were. They seemed to be in a state of complete freedom and relaxation, letting the behavior of the character come through effortlessly. He concluded that unwanted tension has to be eliminated and that the performer at all times attain a state of physical and vocal relaxation.
Concentration and Observation Stanislavsky also discovered that gifted performers always appear fully concentrated on some object, person, or event while onstage. Stanislavsky referred to the extent or range of concentration as a circle of attention. This circle of attention can be compared to a circle of light on a darkened stage. the performer should begin with the idea that it is a small, tight, circle including only himself or herself and perhaps one other person or one piece of furniture. When the performer has established a strong circle of attention, he or she can enlarge the circle outward to include the entire stage area. In this way performers will stop worrying about the audience and lose their self-consciousness.
Importance of Specifics
One of Stanislavsky's techniques was an emphasis on concrete details. A performer should never try to act in general, he said, and should never try to convey a feeling such as fear or love in some vague, amorphous way. In life, Stanislavski said, we express emotions in terms of specifics: an anxious woman twists a handkerchief, an angry boy throws a rock at a trash can, a nervous businessman jangles his keys. Performers must find similar activities.
Inner Truth An innovative aspect of Stanislavsky's work has to do with inner truth, which deals with the internal or subjective world of characters - that is, their thoughts and emotions. The early phases of Stanislavski's research took place while he was also directing the major dramas of Anton Chekhov. Plays like The Seagull and The Cherry Orchard have less to do with external action or what the characters say than what the characters are feeling and thinking but often do not verbalize. It becomes apparent that Stanislavski's approach would be very beneficial in realizing the inner life of such characters.
Stanislavsky had several ideas about how to achieve a sense of inner truth. one being the magic if. If is a word which can transform our thoughts; through it we can imagine ourselves in virtually any situation. "If I suddenly became wealthy..." "If I were vacationing on the Caribbean Island..." "If I had great talent..." "If that person who insulted me comes near me again..." The word if becomes a powerful lever for the mind; it can lift us out of ourselves a give us a sense of absolute certainty about imaginary circumstances.
Action Onstage What? Why? How? An important principle of Stanislavsky's system is that all action onstage must have a purpose. This means that the performer's attention must always be focused on a series of physical actions linked together by the circumstances of the play. Stanislavsky determined these actions by asking three essential questions: What? Why? How? An action is performed, such as opening a letter (the what). The letter is opened because someone has said that it contains extremely damaging information about the character (the why). The letter is opened anxiously, fearfully (the how), because of the calamitous effect it might have on the character. These physical actions, which occur from moment to moment in a performance, are in turn governed by the character's overall objective in the play.
Through Line of a Role
According to Sstanislavsky, in order to develop continuity in a part, the actor or actress should find the superobjective of a character. What is it, above all else, that the character wants during the course of a play? What is the character's driving force? If a goal can be established toward which the character strives, it will give the performer an overall objective. From this objective can be developed a through line which can be grasped, as a skier on a ski lift grabs a towline and is carried to the top. Another term for through line is spine.
Ensemble Playing Except in one-person shows, performers do not act alone; they interact with other people. Stanislavsky was aware that many performers tend to "stop acting," or lose their concentration, when they are not the main characters in a scene or when someone else is talking. Such performers make a great effort when they are speaking but not when they are listening. This tendency destroys the through line and causes the performer to move into and out of a role. That, in turn, weakens the sense of the ensemble - the playing together of all the performers.
"Ему нужно играть, без этого он задыхается, как пустое место без содержания; как платье, которое ни на кого не одето... Актер не индивидуализирован. Вот его сущность" (В.В. Розанов, 1914). ... Во второй половине ХХ века возникает заданная идеями Станиславского технология "актер играет актера, который играет роль", хотя элементы ее можно уловить еще в поставленном Станиславским "Ревизоре" с М. Чеховым-Хлестаковым. Именно в расчете на эту структуру написана, например, пьеса "Марат/Сад" (1965) Петера Вайса.К. С. Станиславский В ГОСТЯХ У МЕТЕРЛИНКА (Russian) Станиславский открыл:
[ lesson 5 throu lesson 8 ]
Moscow Art Theatre 1917: "Пришлось начать с самого начала, учить первобытного в отношении искусства зрителя сидеть тихо, не разговаривать, садиться вовремя, не курить, не грызть орехов, снимать шляпы, не приносить закусок и не есть их в зрительном зале" ("Моя жизнь в искусстве"). (Americans)
Stanislavsky and Psychophysical Action : A character's actions will lead to his / her emotions.
* method acting for directors *
Stanislavski began to develop his techniques in the early part of the twentieth century, and at first he emphasized the inner aspects of training: for example, various ways of getting in touch with the performer's unconscious. Beginning around 1917, however, he began to look more and more at purposeful action, or what he called pyshophysical action. (An action which has a purpose, and leads to feelings about the action taken.) A student at one of his lectures that year took a note and noticed the change: "Whereas action previously had been taught as the expression of a previously- established 'emotional state,' it is now action itself which predominates and is the key to the psychological." (biomechanics)
а) "подтекст", дублирующий исполняемый текст или противоречащий ему; психологический инструмент, информирующий о внутреннем состоянии персонажа, устанавливающий дистанцию между тем, что сказано в тексте, и тем, что показано на сцене; подсознательный фон текста сосуществует параллельно с текстом, реально произносимым персонажами, образуя нечто вроде непрерывного и по-своему значимого второго смыслового ряда;
б) мизансцену как физическую ощутимость сокровенного смысла драматургического текста;
в) тяготение текста пьесы к претексту, перемежающемуся паузами: персонажи не смеют до конца выражать мысли или не могут это делать, они общаются друг с другом полунамеками, или же говорят, чтобы ничего не сказать, заботясь о том, чтобы это ничто было понято собеседником как нечто, наполненное реальным смыслом.
[ film acting ] NEW: http://www.stageportal.com * Russian (designers)
If you need deeper understanding of the System, read books pages and biblio. Also, links and (new) reference pages.
"Vertical structure" (new) of METHOD for Directors with lessons (1-5) in each part will be fully developed only when I teach THR321 Advanced Acting again!
The Absence of Gray Matter by Josh Weckesser Scene: Kim Kutledge is a not-too-bright minor character from Weckesser's high school drama, Gray Matter. Here, Kim speaks about her aspirations and hallucinations. This piece is funny if Kim takes herself seriously - because God knows no one else does. KIM: My name is Kim Kutledge and I am broken. I'm not really broken in the way that a tree becomes broken in a tropical storm or the way or the way an egg becomes broken when it is dropped to the kitchen floor before it can be put in the omelet. I am broken like a bone, painfully and somewhat grotesque to look at, but under the right conditions and proper care I will heal. [beat] What I mean to say is that I am a poet. Really, I am. Listen to this. It's a love poem. [clears throat] Excuse me, but if you would Give me the chance, I think I could Do what I need to make you feel good [long pause] What? No applause? Now you see what I'm talking about, broken. I wasn't even blessed with being tortured, Poe and Dante were tortured, I am simply ineffectual and unloved. I know what you're thinking, "Surely you jest, who would not love you?" The answer is the source of my pain and the reason I cannot heal. I do not love me. I'm like that one guy in that one 80's movie, I do everything that everyone tells me to do. On the plus side nothing is ever my fault, I can always point the finger at someone else. On the down side I talk to myself a lot. Like now for example. None of you are real. I bet you didn't know that, and I kinda hate to break it to you because I'm sure you think you're real, but I just made every one of you up. That's gotta be depressing, but don't worry about it, you'll cease to exist once I've finished thinking about you. But you wanna know the worst part? Would Keanu Reeves please stand up? [pause] See? He's not here! He's never here! I'm so broken that I can't even control my own hallucinations even after I've accepted that fact that they're hallucinations. I know you're wondering about the whole Keanu Reeves thing, but even if he can't act he can say "woah" with the best of them and if he wore his Matrix costume he wouldn't have to say a thing. [beat] Maybe I should go see a psychiatrist about this. I'm pretty sure it's not normal. He'd most likely tell me it was 'advanced projected schizophrenia' or something. I'm sure he'd ask me, "Do you occasionally feel like you're on stage?" and I'd say no but he'd see though it because he'd be a good psychiatrist, and I'd never go see a bad one. So I'd admit to sometimes feeling like I'm on stage and he'd ask me if I'd like to see Keanu Reeves appear and I'd deny that too, but he'd see though it again. So then I'd tell him that Keanu never showed, with or without his leather Matrix jacket. Then I'd ask him how he knew and he'd tell me that it's a pretty common thing, he used to go though something similar. It's hero worship gone horribly awry, something about not having the confidence to want to see someone actually interesting. All I'd have to do to avoid these things was to believe in myself, have some confidence. [epiphany] Yes, I think that's it! Of course that's it. I can do that. I can love myself, I can. And I will. [pause] Right?